How do humans navigate to target objects in novel scenes? Do we use the semantic/functional priors we have built over years to efficiently search and navigate? For example, to search for mugs, we sear... ch cabinets near the coffee machine and for fruits we try the fridge. In this work, we focus on incorporating semantic priors in the task of semantic navigation. We propose to use Graph Convolutional Networks for incorporating the prior knowledge into a deep reinforcement learning framework. The agent uses the features from the knowledge graph to predict the actions. For evaluation, we use the AI2-THOR framework. Our experiments show how semantic knowledge improves performance significantly. More importantly, we show improvement in generalization to unseen scenes and/or objects.
We introduce a fast and efficient convolutional neural network, ESPNet, for semantic segmentation of high resolution images under resource constraints. ESPNet is based on a new convolutional module, e... fficient spatial pyramid (ESP), which is efficient in terms of computation, memory, and power. ESPNet is 22 times faster (on a standard GPU) and 180 times smaller than the stateof-the-art semantic segmentation network PSPNet , while its category-wise accuracy is only 8% less. We evaluated EPSNet on a variety of semantic segmentation datasets including Cityscapes, PASCAL VOC, and a breast biopsy whole slide image dataset. Under the same constraints on memory and computation, ESPNet outperforms all the current efficient CNN networks such as MobileNet, ShuffleNet, and ENet on both standard metrics and our newly introduced performance metrics that measure efficiency on edge devices. Our network can process high resolution images at a rate of 112 and 9 frames per second on a standard GPU and edge device, respectively.
We propose the idea of transferring common-sense knowledge from source categories to target categories for scalable object detection. In our setting, the training data for the source categories have b... ounding box annotations, while those for the target categories only have image-level annotations. Current state-of-the-art approaches focus on image-level visual or semantic similarity to adapt a detector trained on the source categories to the new target categories. In contrast, our key idea is to (i) use similarity not at image-level, but rather at region-level, as well as (ii) leverage richer common-sense (based on attribute, spatial, etc.,) to guide the algorithm towards learning the correct detections. We acquire such common-sense cues automatically from readily-available knowledge bases without any extra human effort. On the challenging MS COCO dataset, we find that using common-sense knowledge substantially improves detection performance over existing transfer-learning baselines.
Imagining a scene described in natural language with realistic layout and appearance of entities is the ultimate test of spatial, visual, and semantic world knowledge. Towards this goal, we present th... e Composition, Retrieval, and Fusion Network (CRAFT), a model capable of learning this knowledge from video-caption data and applying it while generating videos from novel captions. CRAFT explicitly predicts a temporal-layout of mentioned entities (characters and objects), retrieves spatio-temporal entity segments from a video database and fuses them to generate scene videos. Our contributions include sequential training of components of CRAFT while jointly modeling layout and appearances, and losses that encourage learning compositional representations for retrieval. We evaluate CRAFT on semantic fidelity to caption, composition consistency, and visual quality. CRAFT outperforms direct pixel generation approaches and generalizes well to unseen captions and to unseen video databases with no text annotations. We demonstrate CRAFT on FLINTSTONES, a new richly annotated video-caption dataset with over 25000 videos. For a glimpse of videos generated by Craft, see https://youtu.be/688Vv86n0z8.
We study the task of directly modelling a visually intelligent agent. Computer vision typically focuses on solving various subtasks related to visual intelligence. We depart from this standard approac... h to computer vision; instead we directly model a visually intelligent agent. Our model takes visual information as input and directly predicts the actions of the agent. Toward this end we introduce DECADE, a dataset of ego-centric videos from a dog’s perspective as well as her corresponding movements. Using this data we model how the dog acts and how the dog plans her movements. We show under a variety of metrics that given just visual input we can successfully model this intelligent agent in many situations. Moreover, the representation learned by our model encodes distinct information compared to representations trained on image classification, and our learned representation can generalize to other domains. In particular, we show strong results on the task of walkable surface estimation and scene classification by using this dog modelling task as representation learning.
We introduce Interactive Question Answering (IQA), the task of answering questions that require an autonomous agent to interact with a dynamic visual environment. IQA presents the agent with a scene a... nd a question, like: “Are there any apples in the fridge?” The agent must navigate around the scene, acquire visual understanding of scene elements, interact with objects (e.g. open refrigerators) and plan for a series of actions conditioned on the question. Popular reinforcement learning approaches with a single controller perform poorly on IQA owing to the large and diverse state space. We propose the Hierarchical Interactive Memory Network (HIMN), consisting of a factorized set of controllers, allowing the system to operate at multiple levels of temporal abstraction, reducing the diversity of the action space available to each controller and enabling an easier training paradigm. We introduce IQADATA, a new Interactive Question Answering dataset built upon AI2-THOR, a simulated photo-realistic environment of configurable indoor scenes  with interactive objects. IQADATA has 75,000 questions, each paired with a unique scene configuration. Our experiments show that our proposed model outperforms popular single controller based methods on IQADATA. For sample questions and results, please view our video: https://youtu.be/ pXd3C-1jr98.
Diagrams often depict complex phenomena and serve as a good test bed for visual and textual reasoning. However, understanding diagrams using natural image understanding approaches requires large train... ing datasets of diagrams, which are very hard to obtain. Instead, this can be addressed as a matching problem either between labeled diagrams, images or both. This problem is very challenging since the absence of significant color and texture renders local cues ambiguous and requires global reasoning. We consider the problem of one-shot part labeling: labeling multiple parts of an object in a target image given only a single source image of that category. For this set-to-set matching problem, we introduce the Structured Set Matching Network (SSMN), a structured prediction model that incorporates convolutional neural networks. The SSMN is trained using global normalization to maximize local match scores between corresponding elements and a global consistency score among all matched elements, while also enforcing a matching constraint between the two sets. The SSMN significantly outperforms several strong baselines on three label transfer scenarios: diagram-to-diagram, evaluated on a new diagram dataset of over 200 categories; image-toimage, evaluated on a dataset built on top of the Pascal Part Dataset; and image-to-diagram, evaluated on transferring labels across these datasets.
Objects often occlude each other in scenes; Inferring their appearance beyond their visible parts plays an important role in scene understanding, depth estimation, object interaction and manipulation.... In this paper, we study the challenging problem of completing the appearance of occluded objects. Doing so requires knowing which pixels to paint (segmenting the invisible parts of objects) and what color to paint them (generating the invisible parts). Our proposed novel solution, SeGAN, jointly optimizes for both segmentation and generation of the invisible parts of objects. Our experimental results show that: (a) SeGAN can learn to generate the appearance of the occluded parts of objects; (b) SeGAN outperforms state-of-the-art segmentation baselines for the invisible parts of objects; (c) trained on synthetic photo realistic images, SeGAN can reliably segment natural images; (d) by reasoning about occluderoccludee relations, our method can infer depth layering.
We investigate the problem of producing structured graph representations of visual scenes. Our work analyzes the role of motifs: regularly appearing substructures in scene graphs. We present new quant... itative insights on such repeated structures in the Visual Genome dataset. Our analysis shows that object labels are highly predictive of relation labels but not vice-versa. We also find there are recurring patterns even in larger subgraphs: more than 50% of graphs contain motifs involving at least two relations. This analysis leads to a new baseline that is simple, yet strikingly powerful. While hardly considering the overall visual context of an image, it outperforms previous approaches. We then introduce Stacked Motif Networks, a new architecture for encoding global context that is crucial for capturing higher order motifs in scene graphs. Our best model for scene graph detection achieves a 7.3% absolute improvement in recall@50 (41% relative gain) over prior state-of-the-art.
A number of studies have found that today’s Visual Question Answering (VQA) models are heavily driven by superficial correlations in the training data and lack sufficient image grounding. To encourage... development of models geared towards the latter, we propose a new setting for VQA where for every question type, train and test sets have different prior distributions of answers. Specifically, we present new splits of the VQA v1 and VQA v2 datasets, which we call Visual Question Answering under Changing Priors (VQACP v1 and VQA-CP v2 respectively). First, we evaluate several existing VQA models under this new setting and show that their performance degrades significantly compared to the original VQA setting. Second, we propose a novel Grounded Visual Question Answering model (GVQA) that contains inductive biases and restrictions in the architecture specifically designed to prevent the model from ‘cheating’ by primarily relying on priors in the training data. Specifically, GVQA explicitly disentangles the recognition of visual concepts present in the image from the identification of plausible answer space for a given question, enabling the model to more robustly generalize across different distributions of answers. GVQA is built off an existing VQA model – Stacked Attention Networks (SAN). Our experiments demonstrate that GVQA significantly outperforms SAN on both VQA-CP v1 and VQA-CP v2 datasets. Interestingly, it also outperforms more powerful VQA models such as Multimodal Compact Bilinear Pooling (MCB) in several cases. GVQA offers strengths complementary to SAN when trained and evaluated on the original VQA v1 and VQA v2 datasets. Finally, GVQA is more transparent and interpretable than existing VQA models.
Several theories in cognitive neuroscience suggest that when people interact with the world, or simulate interactions, they do so from a first-person egocentric perspective, and seamlessly transfer kn... owledge between third-person (observer) and first-person (actor). Despite this, learning such models for human action recognition has not been achievable due to the lack of data. This paper takes a step in this direction, with the introduction of Charades-Ego, a large-scale dataset of paired first-person and third-person videos, involving 112 people, with 4000 paired videos. This enables learning the link between the two, actor and observer perspectives. Thereby, we address one of the biggest bottlenecks facing egocentric vision research, providing a link from first-person to the abundant third-person data on the web. We use this data to learn a joint representation of first and third-person videos, with only weak supervision, and show its effectiveness for transferring knowledge from the third-person to the first-person domain.
Inspired by the principles of speed reading, we introduce Skim-RNN, a recurrent neural network (RNN) that dynamically decides to update only a small fraction of the hidden state for relatively unimpor... tant input tokens. Skim-RNN gives computational advantage over an RNN that always updates the entire hidden state. Skim-RNN uses the same input and output interfaces as a standard RNN and can be easily used instead of RNNs in existing models. In our experiments, we show that Skim-RNN can achieve significantly reduced computational cost without losing accuracy compared to standard RNNs across five different natural language tasks. In addition, we demonstrate that the trade-off between accuracy and speed of Skim-RNN can be dynamically controlled during inference time in a stable manner. Our analysis also shows that Skim-RNN running on a single CPU offers lower latency compared to standard RNNs on GPUs.
Robust object tracking requires knowledge and understanding of the object being tracked: its appearance, its motion, and how it changes over time. A tracker must be able to modify its underlying model... and adapt to new observations. We present Re3, a real-time deep object tracker capable of incorporating temporal information into its model. Rather than focusing on a limited set of objects or training a model at test-time to track a specific instance, we pretrain our generic tracker on a large variety of objects and efficiently update on the fly; Re3 simultaneously tracks and updates the appearance model with a single forward pass. This lightweight model is capable of tracking objects at 150 FPS, while attaining competitive results on challenging benchmarks. We also show that our method handles temporary occlusion better than other comparable trackers using experiments that directly measure performance on sequences with occlusion.
Developing useful interfaces between brains and machines is a grand challenge of neuroengineering. An effective interface has the capacity to not only interpret neural signals, but predict the intenti... ons of the human to perform an action in the near future; prediction is made even more challenging outside well-controlled laboratory experiments. This paper describes our approach to detect and to predict natural human arm movements in the future, a key challenge in brain computer interfacing that has never before been attempted. We introduce the novel Annotated Joints in Long-term ECoG (AJILE) dataset; AJILE includes automatically annotated poses of 7 upper body joints for four human subjects over 670 total hours (more than 72 million frames), along with the corresponding simultaneously acquired intracranial neural recordings. The size and scope of AJILE greatly exceeds all previous datasets with movements and electrocorticography (ECoG), making it possible to take a deep learning approach to movement prediction. We propose a multimodal model that combines deep convolutional neural networks (CNN) with long short-term memory (LSTM) blocks, leveraging both ECoG and video modalities. We demonstrate that our models are able to detect movements and predict future movements up to 800 msec before movement initiation. Further, our multimodal movement prediction models exhibit resilience to simulated ablation of input neural signals. We believe a multimodal approach to natural neural decoding that takes context into account is critical in advancing bioelectronic technologies and human neuroscience.
We introduce The House Of inteRactions (THOR), a framework for visual AI research, available at http://ai2thor.allenai.org. AI2-THOR consists of near photo-realistic 3D indoor scenes, where AI agents... can navigate in the scenes and interact with objects to perform tasks. AI2-THOR enables research in many different domains including but not limited to deep reinforcement learning, imitation learning, learning by interaction, planning, visual question answering, unsupervised representation learning, object detection and segmentation, and learning models of cognition. The goal of AI2-THOR is to facilitate building visually intelligent models and push the research forward in this domain.
A crucial capability of real-world intelligent agents is their ability to plan a sequence of actions to achieve their goals in the visual world. In this work, we address the problem of visual semantic... planning: the task of predicting a sequence of actions from visual observations that transform a dynamic environment from an initial state to a goal state. Doing so entails knowledge about objects and their affordances, as well as actions and their preconditions and effects. We propose learning these through interacting with a visual and dynamic environment. Our proposed solution involves bootstrapping reinforcement learning with imitation learning. To ensure cross task generalization, we develop a deep predictive model based on successor representations. Our experimental results show near optimal results across a wide range of tasks in the challenging THOR environment.
Humans have rich understanding of liquid containers and their contents; for example, we can effortlessly pour water from a pitcher to a cup. Doing so requires estimating the volume of the cup, approxi... mating the amount of water in the pitcher, and predicting the behavior of water when we tilt the pitcher. Very little attention in computer vision has been made to liquids and their containers. In this paper, we study liquid containers and their contents, and propose methods to estimate the volume of containers, approximate the amount of liquid in them, and perform comparative volume estimations all from a single RGB image. Furthermore, we show the results of the proposed model for predicting the behavior of liquids inside containers when one tilts the containers. We also introduce a new dataset of Containers Of liQuid contEnt (COQE) that contains more than 5,000 images of 10,000 liquid containers in context labelled with volume, amount of content, bounding box annotation, and corresponding similar 3D CAD models.
We introduce YOLO9000, a state-of-the-art, real-time object detection system that can detect over 9000 object categories. First we propose various improvements to the YOLO detection method, both novel... and drawn from prior work. The improved model, YOLOv2, is state-of-the-art on standard detection tasks like PASCAL VOC and COCO. Using a novel, multi-scale training method the same YOLOv2 model can run at varying sizes, offering an easy tradeoff between speed and accuracy. At 67 FPS, YOLOv2 gets 76.8 mAP on VOC 2007. At 40 FPS, YOLOv2 gets 78.6 mAP, outperforming state-of-the-art methods like Faster RCNN with ResNet and SSD while still running significantly faster. Finally we propose a method to jointly train on object detection and classification. Using this method we train YOLO9000 simultaneously on the COCO detection dataset and the ImageNet classification dataset. Our joint training allows YOLO9000 to predict detections for object classes that don't have labelled detection data. We validate our approach on the ImageNet detection task. YOLO9000 gets 19.7 mAP on the ImageNet detection validation set despite only having detection data for 44 of the 200 classes. On the 156 classes not in COCO, YOLO9000 gets 16.0 mAP. YOLO9000 predicts detections for more than 9000 different object categories, all in real-time.
Porting state of the art deep learning algorithms to resource constrained compute platforms (e.g. VR, AR, wearables) is extremely challenging. We propose a fast, compact, and accurate model for convol... utional neural networks that enables efficient learning and inference. We introduce LCNN, a lookup-based convolutional neural network that encodes convolutions by few lookups to a dictionary that is trained to cover the space of weights in CNNs. Training LCNN involves jointly learning a dictionary and a small set of linear combinations. The size of the dictionary naturally traces a spectrum of trade-offs between efficiency and accuracy. Our experimental results on ImageNet challenge show that LCNN can offer 3.2x speedup while achieving2 55.1% top-1 accuracy using AlexNet architecture. Our fastest LCNN offers 37.6x speed up over AlexNet while6 maintaining 44.3% top-1 accuracy. LCNN not only offers dramatic speed ups at inference, but it also enables efficient training. In this paper, we show the benefits of LCNN in few-shot learning and few-iteration learning, two crucial aspects of on-device training of deep learning models.
Semantic sparsity is a common challenge in structured visual classification problems; when the output space is complex, the vast majority of the possible predictions are rarely, if ever, seen in the t... raining set. This paper studies semantic sparsity in situation recognition, the task of producing structured summaries of what is happening in images, including activities, objects and the roles objects play within the activity. For this problem, we find empirically that most substructures required for prediction are rare, and current state-of-the-art model performance dramatically decreases if even one such rare substructure exists in the target output.We avoid many such errors by (1) introducing a novel tensor composition function that learns to share examples across substructures more effectively and (2) semantically augmenting our training data with automatically gathered examples of rarely observed outputs using web data. When integrated within a complete CRF-based structured prediction model, the tensor-based approach outperforms existing state of the art by a relative improvement of 2.11% and 4.40% on top-5 verb and noun-role accuracy, respectively. Adding 5 million images with our semantic augmentation techniques gives further relative improvements of 6.23% and 9.57% on top-5 verb and noun-role accuracy.
We introduce the task of Multi-Modal Machine Comprehension (M3C), which aims at answering multimodal questions given a context of text, diagrams and images. We present the Textbook Question Answering... (TQA) dataset that includes 1,076 lessons and 26,260 multi-modal questions, taken from middle school science curricula. Our analysis shows that a significant portion of questions require complex parsing of the text and the diagrams and reasoning, indicating that our dataset is more complex compared to previous machine comprehension and visual question answering datasets. We extend state-of-the-art methods for textual machine comprehension and visual question answering to the TQA dataset. Our experiments show that these models do not perform well on TQA. The presented dataset opens new challenges for research in question answering and reasoning across multiple modalities.
Actions are more than just movements and trajectories: we cook to eat and we hold a cup to drink from it. A thorough understanding of videos requires going beyond appearance modeling and necessitates... reasoning about the sequence of activities, as well as the higher-level constructs such as intentions. But how do we model and reason about these? We propose a fully-connected temporal CRF model for reasoning over various aspects of activities that includes objects, actions, and intentions, where the potentials are predicted by a deep network. End-to-end training of such structured models is a challenging endeavor: For inference and learning we need to construct mini-batches consisting of whole videos, leading to mini-batches with only a few videos. This causes high-correlation between data points leading to breakdown of the backprop algorithm. To address this challenge, we present an asynchronous variational inference method that allows efficient end-to-end training. Our method achieves a classification mAP of 22.4% on the Charades  benchmark, outperforming the state-of-the-art (17.2% mAP), and offers equal gains on the task of temporal localization.
Two less addressed issues of deep reinforcement learning are (1) lack of generalization capability to new goals, and (2) data inefficiency, i.e., the model requires several (and often costly) episodes... of trial and error to converge, which makes it impractical to be applied to real-world scenarios. In this paper, we address these two issues and apply our model to target-driven visual navigation. To address the first issue, we propose an actor-critic model whose policy is a function of the goal as well as the current state, which allows better generalization. To address the second issue, we propose the AI2-THOR framework, which provides an environment with high-quality 3D scenes and a physics engine. Our framework enables agents to take actions and interact with objects. Hence, we can collect a huge number of training samples efficiently. We show that our proposed method (1) converges faster than the state-of-the-art deep reinforcement learning methods, (2) generalizes across targets and scenes, (3) generalizes to a real robot scenario with a small amount of fine-tuning (although the model is trained in simulation), (4) is end-to-end trainable and does not need feature engineering, feature matching between frames or 3D reconstruction of the environment.
In this paper, we study the problem of question answering when reasoning over multiple facts is required. We propose Query-Reduction Network (QRN), a variant of Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) that eff... ectively handles both short-term (local) and long-term (global) sequential dependencies to reason over multiple facts. QRN considers the context sentences as a sequence of state-changing triggers, and reduces the original query to a more informed query as it observes each trigger (context sentence) through time. Our experiments show that QRN produces the state-of-the-art results in bAbI QA and dialog tasks, and in a real goal-oriented dialog dataset. In addition, QRN formulation allows parallelization on RNN's time axis, saving an order of magnitude in time complexity for training and inference.
Machine comprehension (MC), answering a query about a given context paragraph, requires modeling complex interactions between the context and the query. Recently, attention mechanisms have been succes... sfully extended to MC. Typically these methods use attention to focus on a small portion of the context and summarize it with a fixed-size vector, couple attentions temporally, and/or often form a uni-directional attention. In this paper we introduce the Bi-Directional Attention Flow (BIDAF) network, a multi-stage hierarchical process that represents the context at different levels of granularity and uses bi-directional attention flow mechanism to obtain a query-aware context representation without early summarization. Our experimental evaluations show that our model achieves the state-of-the-art results in Stanford Question Answering Dataset (SQuAD) and CNN/DailyMail cloze test.
We present a novel method to summarize unconstrained videos using salient montages (i.e., a “melange” of frames in the video as shown in Fig. 1), by finding “montageable moments” and identifying the s... alient people and actions to depict in each montage. Our method aims at addressing the increasing need for generating concise visualizations from the large number of videos being captured from portable devices. Our main contributions are (1) the process of finding salient people and moments to form a montage, and (2) the application of this method to videos taken “in the wild” where the camera moves freely. As such, we demonstrate results on head-mounted cameras, where the camera moves constantly, as well as on videos downloaded from YouTube. In our experiments, we show that our method can reliably detect and track humans under significant action and camera motion. Moreover, the predicted salient people are more accurate than results from state-of-the-art video salieny method  . Finally, we demonstrate that a novel “montageability” score can be used to retrieve results with relatively high precision which allows us to present high quality montages to users.
Due to the unprecedented growth of unedited videos, finding highlights relevant to a text query in a set of unedited videos has become increasingly important. We refer this task as semantic highlight... retrieval and propose a query-dependent video representation for retrieving a variety of highlights. Our method consists of two parts: 1) “viralets”, a mid-level representation bridging between semantic [Fig. 1(a)] and visual [Fig. 1(c)] spaces and 2) a novel Semantic-MODulation (SMOD) procedure to make viralets query-dependent (referred to as SMOD viralets). Given SMOD viralets, we train a single highlight ranker to predict the highlightness of clips with respect to a variety of queries (two examples in Fig. 1), whereas existing approaches can be applied only in a few predefined domains. Other than semantic highlight retrieval, viralets can also be used to associate relevant terms to each video. We utilize this property and propose a simple term prediction method based on nearest neighbor search. To conduct experiments, we collect a viral video dataset1 including users' comments, highlights, and/or original videos. Among a testing database with 1189 clips (13% highlights and 87% non-highlights), our highlight ranker achieves 41.2% recall at top-10 retrieved clips. It is significantly higher than the state-of-the-art domain-specific highlight ranker and its extension. Similarly, our method also outperforms all baseline methods on the publicly available video highlight dataset. Finally, our simple term prediction method utilizing viralets outperforms the state-of-the-art matrix factorization method (adapted from Kalayeh et al.). Viral videos refer to popular online videos. We focus on user-generated viral videos, which typically contain short highlight marked by users.
We introduce G-CNN, an object detection technique based on CNNs which works without proposal algorithms. G-CNN starts with a multi-scale grid of fixed bounding boxes. We train a regressor to move and... scale elements of the grid towards objects iteratively. G-CNN models the problem of object detection as finding a path from a fixed grid to boxes tightly surrounding the objects. G-CNN with around 180 boxes in a multi-scale grid performs comparably to Fast R-CNN which uses around 2K bounding boxes generated with a proposal technique. This strategy makes detection faster by removing the object proposal stage as well as reducing the number of boxes to be processed.
We propose Deep3D, a fully automatic 2D-to-3D conversion algorithm that takes 2D images or video frames as input and outputs stereo 3D image pairs. The stereo images can be viewed with 3D glasses or h... ead-mounted VR displays. Deep3D is trained directly on stereo pairs from a dataset of 3D movies to minimize the pixel-wise reconstruction error of the right view when given the left view. Internally, the Deep3D network estimates a probabilistic disparity map that is used by a differentiable depth image-based rendering layer to produce the right view. Thus Deep3D does not require collecting depth sensor data for supervision.
Which are the pedestrian detectors that yield a precision above 95% at 25% recall? Answering such a complex query involves identifying and analyzing the results reported in figures within several rese... arch papers. Despite the availability of excellent academic search engines, retrieving such information poses a cumbersome challenge today as these systems have primarily focused on understanding the text content of scholarly documents. In this paper, we introduce FigureSeer, an end-to-end framework for parsing result-figures, that enables powerful search and retrieval of results in research papers. Our proposed approach automatically localizes figures from research papers, classifies them, and analyses the content of the result-figures. The key challenge in analyzing the figure content is the extraction of the plotted data and its association with the legend entries. We address this challenge by formulating a novel graph-based reasoning approach using a CNN-based similarity metric. We present a thorough evaluation on a real-word annotated dataset to demonstrate the efficacy of our approach.
Large-scale annotated datasets allow AI systems to learn from and build upon the knowledge of the crowd. Many crowdsourcing techniques have been developed for collecting image annotations. These techn... iques often implicitly rely on the fact that a new input image takes a negligible amount of time to perceive. In contrast, we investigate and determine the most cost-effective way of obtaining high-quality multi-label annotations for temporal data such as videos. Watching even a short 30-second video clip requires a significant time investment from a crowd worker; thus, requesting multiple annotations following a single viewing is an important cost-saving strategy. But how many questions should we ask per video? We conclude that the optimal strategy is to ask as many questions as possible in a HIT (up to 52 binary questions after watching a 30-second video clip in our experiments). We demonstrate that while workers may not correctly answer all questions, the cost-benefit analysis nevertheless favors consensus from multiple such cheap-yet-imperfect iterations over more complex alternatives. When compared with a one-question-per-video baseline, our method is able to achieve a 10% improvement in recall (76.7% ours versus 66.7% baseline) at comparable precision (83.8% ours versus 83.0% baseline) in about half the annotation time (3.8 minutes ours compared to 7.1 minutes baseline). We demonstrate the effectiveness of our method by collecting multi-label annotations of 157 human activities on 1,815 videos.
Computer vision has a great potential to help our daily lives by searching for lost keys, watering flowers or reminding us to take a pill. To succeed with such tasks, computer vision methods need to b... e trained from real and diverse examples of our daily dynamic scenes. While most of such scenes are not particularly exciting, they typically do not appear on YouTube, in movies or TV broadcasts. So how do we collect sufficiently many diverse but boring samples representing our lives? We propose a novel Hollywood in Homes approach to collect such data. Instead of shooting videos in the lab, we ensure diversity by distributing and crowdsourcing the whole process of video creation from script writing to video recording and annotation. Following this procedure we collect a new dataset, Charades, with hundreds of people recording videos in their own homes, acting out casual everyday activities. The dataset is composed of 9,848 annotated videos with an average length of 30 seconds, showing activities of 267 people from three continents. Each video is annotated by multiple free-text descriptions, action labels, action intervals and classes of interacted objects. In total, Charades provides 27,847 video descriptions, 66,500 temporally localized intervals for 157 action classes and 41,104 labels for 46 object classes. Using this rich data, we evaluate and provide baseline results for several tasks including action recognition and automatic description generation. We believe that the realism, diversity, and casual nature of this dataset will present unique challenges and new opportunities for computer vision community.
We propose two efficient approximations to standard convolutional neural networks: Binary-Weight-Networks and XNOR-Networks. In Binary-Weight-Networks, the filters are approximated with binary values... resulting in $32 imes$ memory saving. In XNOR-Networks, both the filters and the input to convolutional layers are binary. XNOR-Networks approximate convolutions using primarily binary operations. This results in 58x faster convolutional operations (in terms of number of the high precision operations) and 32x memory savings. XNOR-Nets offer the possibility of running state-of-the-art networks on CPUs (rather than GPUs) in real-time. Our binary networks are simple, accurate, efficient, and work on challenging visual tasks. We evaluate our approach on the ImageNet classification task. The classification accuracy with a Binary-Weight-Network version of AlexNet is the same as the full-precision AlexNet. We compare our method with recent network binarization methods, BinaryConnect and BinaryNets, and outperform these methods by large margins on ImageNet, more than 16% in top-1 accuracy.
What happens if one pushes a cup sitting on a table toward the edge of the table? How about pushing a desk against a wall? In this paper, we study the problem of understanding the movements of objects... as a result of applying external forces to them. For a given force vector applied to a specific location in an image, our goal is to predict long-term sequential movements caused by that force. Doing so entails reasoning about scene geometry, objects, their attributes, and the physical rules that govern the movements of objects. We design a deep neural network model that learns long-term sequential dependencies of object movements while taking into account the geometry and appearance of the scene by combining Convolutional and Recurrent Neural Networks. Training our model requires a large-scale dataset of object movements caused by external forces. To build a dataset of forces in scenes, we reconstructed all images in SUN RGB-D dataset in a physics simulator to estimate the physical movements of objects caused by external forces applied to them. Our Forces in Scenes (ForScene) dataset contains 65,000 object movements in 3D which represent a variety of external forces applied to different types of objects. Our experimental evaluations show that the challenging task of predicting long-term movements of objects as their reaction to external forces is possible from a single image.
Diagrams are common tools for representing complex concepts, relationships and events, often when it would be difficult to portray the same information with natural images. Understanding natural image... s has been extensively studied in computer vision, while diagram understanding has received little attention. In this paper, we study the problem of diagram interpretation, the challenging task of identifying the structure of a diagram and the semantics of its constituents and their relationships. We introduce Diagram Parse Graphs (DPG) as our representation to model the structure of diagrams. We define syntactic parsing of diagrams as learning to infer DPGs for diagrams and study semantic interpretation and reasoning of diagrams in the context of diagram question answering. We devise an LSTM-based method for syntactic parsing of diagrams and introduce a DPG-based attention model for diagram question answering. We compile a new dataset of diagrams with exhaustive annotations of constituents and relationships for about 5,000 diagrams and 15,000 questions and answers. Our results show the significance of our models for syntactic parsing and question answering in diagrams using DPGs.
Clustering is central to many data-driven application domains and has been studied extensively in terms of distance functions and grouping algorithms. Relatively little work has focused on learning re... presentations for clustering. In this paper, we propose Deep Embedded Clustering (DEC), a method that simultaneously learns feature representations and cluster assignments using deep neural networks. DEC learns a mapping from the data space to a lower-dimensional feature space in which it iteratively optimizes a clustering objective. Our experimental evaluations on image and text corpora show significant improvement over state-of-the-art methods.
Figures and tables are key sources of information in many scholarly documents. However, current academic search engines do not make use of figures and tables when semantically parsing documents or pre... senting document summaries to users. To facilitate these applications we develop an algorithm that extracts figures, tables, and captions from documents called "PDFFigures 2.0." Our proposed approach analyzes the structure of individual pages by detecting captions, graphical elements, and chunks of body text, and then locates figures and tables by reasoning about the empty regions within that text. To evaluate our work, we introduce a new dataset of computer science papers, along with ground truth labels for the locations of the figures, tables, and captions within them. Our algorithm achieves impressive results (94% precision at 90% recall) on this dataset surpassing previous state of the art. Further, we show how our framework was used to extract figures from a corpus of over one million papers, and how the resulting extractions were integrated into the user interface of a smart academic search engine, Semantic Scholar (www.semanticscholar.org). Finally, we present results of exploratory data analysis completed on the extracted figures as well as an extension of our method for the task of section title extraction. We release our dataset and code on our project webpage for enabling future research (http://pdffigures2.allenai.org).
With the recent progress in visual recognition, we have already started to see a surge of vision related real-world applications. These applications, unlike general scene understanding, are task orien... ted and require specific information from visual data. Considering the current growth in new sensory devices, feature designs, feature learning methods, and algorithms, the search in the space of features and models becomes combinatorial. In this paper, we propose a novel cost-sensitive task-oriented recognition method that is based on a combination of linguistic semantics and visual cues. Our task-oriented framework is able to generalize to unseen tasks for which there is no training data and outperforms state-of-the-art cost-based recognition baselines on our new task-based dataset.
What defines an action like “kicking ball”? We argue that the true meaning of an action lies in the change or transformation an action brings to the environment. In this paper, we propose a novel repr... esentation for actions by modeling an action as a transformation which changes the state of the environment before the action happens (pre-condition) to the state after the action (effect). Motivated by recent advancements of video representation using deep learning, we design a Siamese network which models the action as a transformation on a high-level feature space. We show that our model gives improvements on standard action recognition datasets including UCF101 and HMDB51. More importantly, our approach is able to generalize beyond learned action categories and shows significant performance improvement on cross-category generalization on our new ACT dataset.
We present YOLO, a new approach to object detection. Prior work on object detection repurposes classifiers to perform detection. Instead, we frame object detection as a regression problem to spatially... separated bounding boxes and associated class probabilities. A single neural network pre- dicts bounding boxes and class probabilities directly from full images in one evaluation. Since the whole detection pipeline is a single network, it can be optimized end-to-end directly on detection performance. Our unified architecture is extremely fast. Our base YOLO model processes images in real-time at 45 frames per second. A smaller version of the network, Fast YOLO, processes an astounding 155 frames per second while still achieving double the mAP of other real-time detec- tors. Compared to state-of-the-art detection systems, YOLO makes more localization errors but is less likely to predict false positives on background. Finally, YOLO learns very general representations of objects. It outperforms other detection methods, including DPM and R-CNN, when generalizing from natural images to other domains like artwork.
In this paper, we study the challenging problem of predicting the dynamics of objects in static images. Given a query object in an image, our goal is to provide a physical understanding of the object... in terms of the forces acting upon it and its long term motion as response to those forces. Direct and explicit estimation of the forces and the motion of objects from a single image is extremely challenging. We define intermediate physical abstractions called Newtonian scenarios and introduce Newtonian Neural Network (N3) that learns to map a single image to a state in a Newto- nian scenario. Our evaluations show that our method can reliably predict dynamics of a query object from a single image. In addition, our approach can provide physical rea- soning that supports the predicted dynamics in terms of ve- locity and force vectors. To spur research in this direction we compiled Visual Newtonian Dynamics (VIND) dataset that includes more than 6000 videos aligned with Newto- nian scenarios represented using game engines, and more than 4500 still images with their ground truth dynamics.
This paper introduces situation recognition, the problem of producing a concise summary of the situation an image depicts including: (1) the main activity (e.g., clipping), (2) the participating actor... s, objects, substances, and locations (e.g., man, shears, sheep, wool, and field) and most importantly (3) the roles these participants play in the activity (e.g., the man is clipping, the shears are his tool, the wool is being clipped from the sheep, and the clipping is in a field). We use FrameNet, a verb and role lexicon devel- oped by linguists, to define a large space of possible sit- uations and collect a large-scale dataset containing over 500 activities, 1,700 roles, 11,000 objects, 125,000 images, and 200,000 unique situations. We also introduce struc- tured prediction baselines and show that, in activity-centric images, situation-driven prediction of objects and activities outperforms independent object and activity recognition.
Obtaining common sense knowledge using current information extraction techniques is extremely challenging. In this work, we instead propose to derive simple common sense statements from fully annotate... d object detection corpora such as the Microsoft Common Objects in Context dataset. We show that many thousands of common sense facts can be extracted from such corpora at high quality. Furthermore, using WordNet and a novel submodular k-coverage formulation, we are able to generalize our initial set of common sense assertions to unseen objects and uncover over 400k potentially useful facts.
Human vision greatly benefits from the information about sizes of objects. The role of size in several visual reasoning tasks has been thoroughly explored in human perception and cognition. However, t... he impact of the information about sizes of objects is yet to be determined in AI. We postulate that this is mainly attributed to the lack of a comprehensive repository of size information. In this paper, we introduce a method to automatically infer object sizes, leveraging visual and textual information from web. By maximizing the joint likelihood of textual and visual observations, our method learns reliable relative size estimates, with no explicit human supervision. We introduce the relative size dataset and show that our method outperforms competitive textual and visual baselines in reasoning about size comparisons.
The human visual system can spot an abnormal image, and reason about what makes it strange. This task has not received enough attention in computer vision. In this paper we study various types of atyp... icalities in images in a more comprehensive way than has been done before. We propose a new dataset of abnormal images showing a wide range of atypicalities. We design human subject experiments to discover a coarse taxonomy of the reasons for abnormality. Our experiments reveal three major categories of abnormality: object-centric, scene-centric, and contextual. Based on this taxonomy, we propose a comprehensive computational model that can predict all different types of abnormality in images and outperform prior arts in abnormality recognition.
We introduce Segment-Phrase Table (SPT), a large collection of bijective associations between textual phrases and their corresponding segmentations. Leveraging recent progress in object recognition an... d natural language semantics, we show how we can successfully build a highquality segment-phrase table using minimal human supervision. More importantly, we demonstrate the unique value unleashed by this rich bimodal resource, for both vision as well as natural language understanding. First, we show that fine-grained textual labels facilitate contextual reasoning that helps in satisfying semantic constraints across image segments. This feature enables us to achieve state-of-the-art segmentation results on benchmark datasets. Next, we show that the association of high-quality segmentations to textual phrases aids in richer semantic understanding and reasoning of these textual phrases. Leveraging this feature, we motivate the problem of visual entailment and visual paraphrasing, and demonstrate its utility on a large dataset.
We all have experienced forgetting habitual actions among our daily activities. For example, we probably have forgotten to turn the lights off before leaving a room or turn the stove off after cooking... . In this paper, we propose a solution to the problem of issuing notifications on actions that may be missed. This involves learning about interdependencies between actions and being able to predict an ongoing action while segmenting the input video stream. In order to show a proof of concept, we collected a new egocentric dataset, in which people wear a camera while making lattes. We show promising results on the extremely challenging task of issuing correct and timely reminders. We also show that our model reliably segments the actions, while predicting the ongoing one when only a few frames from the beginning of the action are observed. The overall prediction accuracy is 46.2% when only 10 frames of an action are seen (2/3 of a sec). Moreover, the overall recognition and segmentation accuracy is shown to be 72.7% when the whole activity sequence is observed. Finally, the online prediction and segmentation accuracy is 68.3% when the prediction is made at every time step.
In this paper we present a bottom-up method to instance level Multiple Instance Learning (MIL) that learns to discover positive instances with globally constrained reasoning about local pairwise simil... arities. We discover positive instances by optimizing for a ranking such that positive (top rank) instances are highly and consistently similar to each other and dissimilar to negative instances. Our approach takes advantage of a discriminative notion of pairwise similarity coupled with a structural cue in the form of a consistency metric that measures the quality of each similarity. We learn a similarity function for every pair of instances in positive bags by how similarly they differ from instances in negative bags, the only certain labels in MIL. Our experiments demonstrate that our method consistently outperforms state-of-the-art MIL methods both at bag-level and instance-level predictions in standard benchmarks, image category recognition, and text categorization datasets.
This paper introduces GEOS, the first automated system to solve unaltered SAT geometry questions by combining text understanding and diagram interpretation. We model the problem of understanding geome... try questions as submodular optimization, and identify a formal problem description likely to be compatible with both the question text and diagram. GEOS then feeds the description to a geometric solver that attempts to determine the correct answer. In our experiments, GEOS achieves a 49% score on official SAT questions, and a score of 61% on practice questions. Finally, we show that by integrating textual and visual information, GEOS boosts the accuracy of dependency and semantic parsing of the question text.
In this paper, we study the problem of answering visual analogy questions. These questions take the form of image A is to image B as image C is to what. Answering these questions entails discovering t... he mapping from image A to image B and then extending the mapping to image C and searching for the image D such that the relation from A to B holds for C to D.We pose this problem as learning an embedding that encourages pairs of analogous images with similar transformations to be close together using convolutional neural networks with a quadruple Siamese architecture. We introduce a dataset of visual analogy questions in natural images, and show first results of its kind on solving analogy questions on natural images.
How can we know whether a statement about our world is valid. For example, given a relationship between a pair of entities e.g., 'eat(horse, hay)', how can we know whether this relationship is true or... false in general. Gathering such knowledge about entities and their relationships is one of the fundamental challenges in knowledge extraction. Most previous works on knowledge extraction havefocused purely on text-driven reasoning for verifying relation phrases. In this work, we introduce the problemof visual verification of relation phrases and developed aVisual Knowledge Extraction system called VisKE. Given a verb-based relation phrase between common nouns, our approach assess its validity by jointly analyzing over textand images and reasoning about the spatial consistency of the relative configurations of the entities and the relation involved. Our approach involves no explicit human supervision there by enabling large-scale analysis. Using our approach, we have already verified over 12000 relation phrases. Our approach has been used to not only enrich existing textual knowledge bases by improving their recall,but also augment open-domain question-answer reasoning.
Identifying and extracting figures and tables along with their captions from scholarly articles is important both as a way of providing tools for article summarization, and as part of larger systems t... hat seek to gain deeper, semantic understanding of these articles. While many "off-the-shelf" tools exist that can extract embedded images from these documents, e.g. PDFBox, Poppler, etc., these tools are unable to extract tables, captions, and figures composed of vector graphics. Our proposed approach analyzes the structure of individual pages of a document by detecting chunks of body text, and locates the areas wherein figures or tables could reside by reasoning about the empty regions within that text. This method can extract a wide variety of figures because it does not make strong assumptions about the format of the figures embedded in the document, as long as they can be differentiated from the main article's text. Our algorithm also demonstrates a caption-to-figure matching component that is effective even in cases where individual captions are adjacent to multiple figures. Our contribution also includes methods for leveraging particular consistency and formatting assumptions to identify titles, body text and captions within each article. We introduce a new dataset of 150 computer science papers along with ground truth labels for the locations of the figures, tables and captions within them. Our algorithm achieves 96% precision at 92% recall when tested against this dataset, surpassing previous state of the art. We release our dataset, code, and evaluation scripts on our project website for enabling future research.
We propose the problem of automated photo album creation from an unordered image collection. The problem is difficult as it involves a number of complex perceptual tasks that facilitate selection and... ordering of photos to create a compelling visual narrative. To help solve this problem, we collect (and will make available) a new benchmark dataset based on Flickr images. Flickr Album Dataset and provides a variety of annotations useful for the task, including manually created albums of various lengths. We analyze the problem and provide experimental evidence, through user studies, that both selection and ordering of photos within an album is important for human observers. To capture and learn rules of album composition, we propose a discriminative structured model capable of encoding simple preferences for contextual layout of the scene (e.g., spatial layout of faces, global scene context, and presence/absence of attributes) and ordering between photos (e.g., exclusion principles or correlations). The parameters of the model are learned using a structured SVM framework. Once learned, the model allows automatic composition of photo albums from unordered and untagged collections of images. We quantitatively evaluate the results obtained using our model against manually created albums and baselines on a dataset of 63 personal photo collections from 5 different topics.
Automatically solving geometry questions is a longstanding AI problem. A geometry question typically includes a textual description accompanied by a diagram. The first step in solving geometry questio... ns is diagram understanding, which consists of identifying visual elements in the diagram, their locations, their geometric properties, and aligning them to corresponding textual descriptions. In this paper, we present a method for diagram understanding that identifies visual elements in a diagram while maximizing agreement between textual and visual data. We show that the method’s objective function is submodular; thus we are able to introduce an efficient method for diagram understanding that is close to optimal. To empirically evaluate our method, we compile a new dataset of geometry questions (textual descriptions and diagrams) and compare with baselines that utilize standard vision techniques. Our experimental evaluation shows an F1 boost of more than 17% in identifying visual elements and 25% in aligning visual elements with their textual descriptions.
Recognition is graduating from labs to real-world applications. While it is encouraging to see its potential being tapped, it brings forth a fundamental challenge to the vision researcher: scalability... . How can we learn a model for any concept that exhaustively covers all its appearance variations, while requiring minimal or no human supervision for compiling the vocabulary of visual variance, gathering the training images and annotations, and learning the models? In this paper, we introduce a fully-automated approach for learning extensive models for a wide range of variations (e.g. actions, interactions, attributes and beyond) within any concept. Our approach leverages vast resources of online books to discover the vocabulary of variance, and intertwines the data collection and modeling steps to alleviate the need for explicit human supervision in training the models. Our approach organizes the visual knowledge about a concept in a convenient and useful way, enabling a variety of applications across vision and NLP. Our online system has been queried by users to learn models for several interesting concepts including breakfast, Gandhi, beautiful, etc. To date, our system has models available for over 50,000 variations within 150 concepts, and has annotated more than 10 million images with bounding boxes.